International Journal of Research https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong>ijr@ijrjournal.com</strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="https://journals.pen2print.org/public/journals/1/homepageImage_en_US.png" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd en-US International Journal of Research 2348-795X Comparison of the portrayal of nature in the poems William Wordsworth and Sumitranandan Pant https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/306 <p>It is to his work as poet of nature that Wordsworth chiefly owes his general fame. There had&nbsp;in fact, been numerous poets who had loved and described natural objects and scenes; even the eighteenth century&nbsp;was not&nbsp;entirely without them. Other nature poets had been capable also of faithful, accurate description. The new, that is, the Romantic element in Wordsworth’s nature poetry&nbsp;is that the&nbsp;expression in words of sensations aroused by observation of the beauties of the external world. Almost his whole philosophy of nature is summed up in this stanza from “The Table Turned”: -</p> <p><br><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One impulse from a vernal wood<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; May teach you more of man,<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Of moral evil and of good,<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Then all the sages can.</em></p> <p><br><br></p> Dr. Reena Mittal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 9 1 1 7 INCREASING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH BRAND EXPERIENCE, BRAND EQUITY, AND CUSTOMER COMMITMENT https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/307 <p><em>Currently, technological advances are very rapid, so that various types of goods that customers need can be easily obtained. With this variety of products, customers have to think critically in determining their product choices, so that manufacturers try to compete to win customer interest and market share in a more aggressive way in carrying out marketing strategies. The focus of marketers in general is to keep customers forever. It includes several aspects that are not easy to make, considering that each customer or consumer has different tastes, environmental and psychological conditions of the customer, or even the culture of the customer itself. The brand experience felt by customers is a very important factor for the continuity of the business owned because they are a long-term 'investment' to add value to the value they have. Brand equity can be affected by the brand experience by customers and therefore, the author feels the need to discuss how to make Customer Satisfaction through Brand Experience, Brand Equity and Customer Commitment. </em></p> Ani Suhartatik Lena Ellitan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 9 1 8 15 MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES LEVEL IN GHANAIAN MAIZE – Maize consumption and radionuclides impacts on health https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/308 <p><em>&nbsp; &nbsp;By gamma spectroscopic measurement; the content of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and their activity levels were determined in selected common Ghanaian maize. The purpose was to establish whether these levels and subsequently their annual effective doses from the intake of these radionuclides were within the internationally acceptable limits. Six different maize varieties were collected, processed and data on each sample analyzed using a High Purity Germanium Detector. The activity levels and annual effective doses were calculated for the samples. The most significant radionuclides obtained from the analysis were; Potassium (<sup>40</sup>K), Uranium (<sup>238</sup>U), Caesium (<sup>134</sup>Cs), and Thorium (<sup>232</sup>Th). The average annual effective doses obtained from this study were 0.0039 mSv and 0.0012 mSv for dried and ashed samples respectively. This study concluded that the radionuclide activities and the annual effective doses were within acceptable standard levels and hence these Ghanaian maize varieties suitable for human consumption.&nbsp; </em></p> ISAAC ODOI DANQUAH GEORGE FELIX ACQUAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 9 1 16 28 Climate Changes and its Psychological Impacts on the Human Behavior: Case Study in Koforidua Municipal https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/310 <p><em>The human intellect is the master control room towards attitudinal behavior. We respond to sound at various frequencies through stimuli. The ability to respond to good music is humanly triggered through inter – brain connection where hearts responds to joy is at the same frequency. This study tries to assess the psychological effect of music on human’s personality especially during occasions. It tries to also evaluate the effect of alcohol and other stimulants on the human brain and its responds to music through dancing. The study establishes that, human’s anxiety and quest for riches and glory in life is never met. Most results are obtained from school dropouts and graduates without jobs. They therefore </em><em>sort for first hand pain relief; hence the use of all kinds of alcoholic drinks to stimulate the nerves in the brain for happiness. This paper investigates climate change on a sociology background exploring climatical changes in human behavior through music in Ghana with Koforidua as a sample study area. This study concludes with suggestions for researchers interested in developing knowledge about behavioral change and psychological response to climate changes.</em> <em>Research findings indicate that about 99.8% of the people in Koforidua are not on the street but will continue to showcase of all forms of psychological behaviors at functions due to climate changes caused by stimulants such as alcohol.</em></p> ISAAC ODOI DANQUAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 29 41 Technological and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Nigeria Servicing Science Teachers’ Competency in Teaching Profession in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo-State https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/311 <p><em>This study investigates technological and pedagogical content knowledge of science teachers’ competency in teaching profession in senior secondary schools in Ondo State. A survey research design was used on 628 science teachers and 132 principals in 12 local government areas across the three senatorial districts of Ondo State using multistage sampling procedure. Technological and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Questionnaire (TPCKQ) and Science Teachers Profession Competency Questionnaire (STPCQ) were used to collect data. The findings revealed that male science teachers possessed higher PCK than female teachers, urban science teachers possessed higher PCK than the rural teachers, female science teachers display high level of self-efficacy in the use of technology than male counterpart, the levels of TK of urban science teachers are higher than rural respondents, a significant relationship between science teachers’ professional competency and their PCK and no significant relationship between the teachers’ TK and their professional competency. It is recommended that teachers should focus on the synergy between pedagogy and technology and how it can be implemented within specific content areas. Also, </em><em>government should equip schools with ICT facilities to enhance integration of technology in science classroom. </em></p> Olajumoke Toye OMINOWA Adesoji Olubunmi OMONIYI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 9 1 42 51 ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPALS’ USE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN PLANNING PROCESS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/312 <p><em>This study is carried out to assess principals’ use of management information system (MIS) in planning process in secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A total of 467 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents comprising of the entire population of public secondary school principals as there were no sampling of the principals and 398 copies (that is 221 male principals and 177 female principals) were properly completed and successfully retrieved, indicating 85% return was used for the data analysis. A research developed questionnaire titled Assessment of Principals’ Use of Management Information System in Planning Process Questionnaire (APUMISPPQ) was used for the data collection. The instruments were validated by three experts, two in the Department of Educational Management and Policy and one in the Department of Educational Foundations, all in the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The instruments were subjected to test of internal consistency using Cronbach alpha which yielded overall coefficient of 0.87. The researcher together with six research assistants collected the data for the study using direct administration method. Mean and Standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed among others that the extent of principals’ use of management information system in planning process was to a low extent. It was also reported that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female principals on the extent they use MIS in planning process. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the Government through the State Ministry of Education should organize seminars and workshop for principals with the aim of equipping them with relevant MIS facilities and educating them on the benefits of using management information system in making research for current/relevant information before engaging on planning process in order to be more effective in planning. </em></p> Nwaozor, Henry Osedebe Obi, Emenike Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 9 1 52 63 PR And fuzzy Logic control Control Three-phase of Bi-directional Z-source Converters a Low-harmonic for Vehicle-to-Grid Applications https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/313 <p><em>Three-phase Z-source inverters provide a solution of voltage boosting by a single-stage topology. They are also capable of bi-directional operation as rectifiers, thus have great potential for applications in the field of transportation electrification such as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) chargers. In this paper, three new modulation schemes for three-phase Z-source converters are proposed and investigated. The best performed one is further developed to a closed-loop PR And fuzzy control method. While the voltage conversion ratio is flexible, the output voltage Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) is below 3% within the voltage ratio range of 0.5 to 2.5. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been fully validated in MATLAB/Simulink simulations Compared to existing control methods, the proposed one performs better with reduced harmonics, flexible voltage gain, and simpler control algorithm.</em></p> M. ROHIT CH. RAJA SRI M. RAVINDER Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 9 1 64 75 Organizational Culture and Change: Action Plan for Foreign Faculty Integration https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/314 <p><em>This paper </em><em>investigates</em> <em>theories on how to </em><em>adopt </em><em>inclusive</em><em> leadership</em><em> practices</em> <em>i</em><em>n a strict</em><em>ly</em><em> hierarchical </em><em>academic organization</em><em>. In 2013, the </em><em>education m</em><em>inistry </em><em>in Japan </em><em>announced their English </em><em>language</em><em> reform plan </em><em>to internationalize universities</em><em>. The new reforms have brought a number of structural and curricular changes </em><em>for</em> <em>university</em><em> English education</em><em> (Egitim, 2022)</em><em>. One of the changes was that all English classes would have to be </em><em>taught</em><em> in English. As a result, many universities </em><em>adopted</em> <em>to the new reforms</em><em>.</em> <em>In an effort to promote globalization, </em><em>universities expanded their foreign faculty members</em><em>. However, due to the strict hierarchical structure, decisions </em><em>were</em><em> made by a single authority at the top and communicated down </em><em>through the hierarchy</em><em>. Thus, everyone is expected to conform to the demands of the top management without questioning. </em><em>This study attempted to propose a three-step action plan to help overcome the integration issues of foreign faculty members. </em><em>The </em><em>previous </em><em>literature </em><em>indicates</em><em> that a new organizational culture needs to be </em><em>in place</em> <em>for the </em><em>&nbsp;successful execut</em><em>ion</em> <em>of </em><em>large-scale changes (Burke, 2018; Jaaskelainen &amp; Uusi-Rauva, 2010; Kotter &amp; Cohen, 2002). Some studies also </em><em>suggested</em><em> that positive worker attitude is the most essential factor to enhance performance and productivity among workers (Burke, 2018, p.34). </em><em>However, </em><em>collaborative engagement of all workers is needed to allow everyone to embrace the intended objective and vision. Once all employees are given enough autonomy, they can take ownership </em><em>of</em><em> their roles. </em><em>The</em><em> shared leadership model allows all faculty members enough autonomy to take leadership in their area of expertise. Each member is regarded as the leader in that particular role. </em></p> Evrim Sencar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-06 2022-01-06 9 1 76 84 The Effect of Loneliness, and Depression on Internet Addiction in Students https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/315 <p><em>This study aims to determine how much influence loneliness and depression have on internet addiction in college students. Internet addiction in this study was measured by the adaptation scale of the Internet Addiction Test, loneliness in this study was measured by the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, and depression in this study was measured by the adaptation scale of the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Respondents in this study were 164 students who were still actively studying at Gunadarma University. This study uses multiple regression data analysis techniques using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The results of this study indicate that the effect of loneliness and depression on internet addiction is 10, 3% with a positive direction of relationship between loneliness and internet addiction and a negative direction of relationship between depression and internet addiction. This proves that there is an influence of loneliness and depression on internet addiction.</em></p> Rahmah Ayuningtyas Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-08 2022-01-08 9 1 85 97 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPTIMISM WITH WORK STRESS IN SALES MARKETING PT ASURANSI JIWASRAYA https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/316 <p><em>Work stress is a condition where individuals experienced incompatibility between work with skill and ability that they have on implementing their jobs which caused discomfort on themselves. Work stress is actually determined by the sales marketing itself, besides having to adjust the existing work system, a sales marketing must also have optimistic attitude. Optimism is a one’s self confidence who views a problem and difficulty will lead to a good direction. </em></p> <p><em>This study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between optimism with work stress on sales marketing at PT. Asuransi Jiwasraya. &nbsp;Data collection was carried out by questionerre method and processed using SPSS version 23. Total of respondents is 76 people, consisting of 25 males and 51 females. The realibility test results of the measuring instrument for work stress is 0, 871 dan for the optimism scale is 0,864. Hypothesis testing in this study uses Pearson Product Moment correlation. Based on data analysis, the results show that there is a significant relationship between optimism and work stress, with a significance value of -0.375 (p &lt;0.01) which means there is a negative relationship between optimism and work stress in PT Asuransi Jiwasraya sales marketing.</em></p> Dila Dwisera Dr. Inge Andriani Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 9 1 98 110 Covid19 lockdown impact on Rural economy: A case study of a village in Haryana https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/317 <p>The History of humankind evolve by struggling with Nature. Human race faces a lot of troubles in their history like World War I and II, Global financial crisis or Great Depression in 1929-34, epidemics like Black death, Plague, Smallpox, Ebola etc. So this time again it builds the history as per Yuval Noah Harai: the world after the Coronavirus (Financial Time). Every epidemic or pandemic of their time had horrified impacts on the human society. Perhaps at present the coronavirus disease called the Covid19 may also be the most dangerous pandemic to the whole world. How much this pandemic is dangerous to mankind, you can imagine by the movement of Covid19 epicentre from China’s Wuhan to Europe’s Italy to USA’ New York city. Every country take their appropriate action to tackle the Covid19 outbreak such as social distancing, contact tracing, lockdown, curfew etc. and research &amp; development to make vaccine. Perhaps it will functioning well or not, as China has gained control over the covid19 pandemic but USA most powerful nation facing the problem of continuous increase in the number of infected cases, Italy continuously reported the increasing number of deaths and India facing the problem of their large number of poor masses, casual-informal labor, agricultural community in villages and migrant laborers from many metro cities due to the decision of sudden unplanned lockdown by our PM.</p> Harmanender Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 9 1 111 118 Peasant Class Differentiation In Punjab https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/318 <p><em>This paper seeks to analyse the impact of </em><em>commercialization in agriculture in </em><em>Twenty first century. It addresses the issues of agrarian transition in Punjab, like state driven capitalism, different peasant class formation and their conditions in rural Punjab. Therefor the current paper analyse the Peasant class differentiation on the basis their land holding, land ownership, labor hired in and hired out that is labour exploitation and reverse tenancy in Punjab.</em></p> Harmanender Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-11 2022-01-11 9 1 119 148 EFFECT OF BOARD CHARACTERISTICS ON RELATED PARTY TRANSACTION OF NIGERIAN CONGLOMERATE FIRMS https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/319 <p><em>This study examines the effect of board characteristics on related party transaction of Nigerian conglomerate firms. Ex Post Facto research design was adopted for the study, the population of the study consist of six Conglomerates firms in Nigeria. Data for the study were extracted from audited report and accounts of the sampled firms. The formulated hypotheses were tested with Ordinary Least Square (OLS) using E-View 9.0 to arrive at logical conclusion. The study found that board composition has a negative insignificant effect on related party transaction of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The study recommended that manufacturing firms adjudged to play a significant role in publicly listed entities as well </em><em>encouraged board independent </em><em>as they are </em><em>likely to carry out a more thorough diligent assignment.</em></p> Ndum, Ngozi B. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-11 2022-01-11 9 1 149 163 BOARD CHARACTERISTICS AND CASH VALUE ADDED OF QUOTED DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN NIGERIA https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/320 <p><em>This study assessed the </em><em>relationship between board characteristics and cash value added of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria. The proxies used to measure board characteristics are board size, board independence and gender diversity while cash value added served as the dependent variable for a period of thirteen (13) years spanning from 2008 to 2020. </em><em>Based on the objectives of the study, three hypotheses were formulated. Ex-Post facto research design was adopted. The panel data were obtained from annual reports and accounts of sampled firms. The study employed descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using Pearson correlation and Panel Least Square (PLS) regression analysis. Specifically, the study found that </em><em>a positive and significant relationship among board independence, gender diversity and cash value added while a negative, though, significant relationship exists between board size and cash value added. at 5% level of significance respectively. It was recommended amongst others that board independence should be increased through creativity and innovation in order to manage the relationship between the boards and stakeholders leading to an improvement in the firm financial performance.</em></p> Okocha, Onyeka, Henry Okoye. Pius Vincent Chukwubuikem Amahalu, Nestor Ndubuisi Obi, Juliet Chinyere Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-12 2022-01-12 9 1 164 178 EFFECT OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL ON ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED OF QUOTED NON-FINANCIAL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/321 <p><em>This study established the effect of intellectual capital on economic value added of quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. Specifically this study sought to: determine the effect of Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE) on Economic Value Added of quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria, and ascertain the effect of Human Capital Efficiency (HCE) on Economic Value Added of quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. Ex-Post Facto research design was adopted for the study and Data were extracted from audited accounts of non-financial companies in Nigeria from 2008 to 2020 (13 years). A sample size of thirty-two (32) non-financial companies was selected from a population of 124 companies. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data using E-view10.0. The result revealed that CEE and HCE have a significant positive effect on EVA of quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria at 5% level of significance.&nbsp; Based on the results, the study recommended among others that enlightenment campaigns in the areas of available cheap long term credit sources at concessionary interest rate and less stringent conditions should be carried out by financial stakeholders. This would assist firms acquire more tangible assets with which to improve upon their performances and enjoy economy of scale.</em></p> Michael Ugeoritsete EYIDE Ekwueme, Chizoba M. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-13 2022-01-13 9 1 179 205 Architecture for the ageing population https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/322 <p><em>The built environment needs to adapt to the growing number of elderly people while maintaining and improving the accessibility of the built environment. Due to improvements in medical facilities, India is seeing an increase in this age group population. The design of the built environment needs to be reconsidered for adapting the needs of the elderly people and to improve accessibility for them. One aspect of the built environment that urgently needs to be investigated is the quality of assisted living facilities and age friendly communities. Environmental psychology can serve to create supportive surroundings for human beings who are challenged through physical, psychological, ailments, accidents, stress and tension associated with day-to-day lifestyles</em></p> Muskan Baid Dr. Vandana Agrawal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 9 1 206 216 Design and Analysis of High Speed Wallace Tree multiplier using Parallel Prefix Adders for VLSI Circuit Designs https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/323 <p><em>Variable latency adders have been recently proposed in literature. A variable latency adder employs speculation: the exact arithmetic function is replaced with an approximated one that is faster and gives the correct result most of the time, but not always. The approximated adder is augmented with an error detection network that asserts an error signal when speculation fails. Speculative variable latency adders have attracted strong interest thanks to their capability to reduce average delay compared to traditional architectures. This paper proposes a novel variable latency speculative adder based on Han-Carlson parallel-prefix topology that resulted more effective than variable latency Kogge-Stone topology. The paper describes the stages in which variable latency speculative prefix adders can be subdivided and presents a novel error detection network that reduces error probability compared to previous approaches. Several variable latency speculative adders, for various operand lengths, using both Han-Carlson and Kogge-Stone topology, have been synthesized using the UMC 65 nm library. Obtained results show that proposed variable latency Han-Carlson adder outperforms both previously proposed speculative Kogge-Stone architectures and non-speculative adders, when high-speed is required. It is also shown that non-speculative adders remain the best choice when the speed constraint is relaxed.</em></p> Gumpena Vikram Babu Ashok Reddy Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 9 1 217 230 Engagement as an Instrument of Authenticating Discourse Functions in Nigerian Newspaper Political Campaign Advertisements https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/325 <p><em>Engagement is one of the tripartite evaluative language processes in the Appraisal theory. The system involves how the authorial voice engages the external voice in his text. This study analysed how this sub-category of the appraisal was used to authenticate persuasion-induced discourse functions in political advertisements.&nbsp;The data of this qualitative study were obtained from paid advertisements of the two main political parties in Nigeria published in three newspapers - "The Nation" and "Nigerian Tribune" and “The Guardian”. The advertisements of the two political parties were purposively selected because they were responsible for more than75% of newspaper campaign adverts during the period of study (2015 &amp; 2019 elections). The results of the study reveal that the "Engagement system" was used as a rhetorical tool to authenticate and give credibility to positive acclaims on self and support the negative claims made on the opponent. One can safely conclude that the engagement system is an invaluable linguistic&nbsp;resource in political interactional discourse. Language scholars in the field of persuasive rhetoric should give serious attention to this persuasive strategy. This is because it has practical implications for practitioners of political advertising and consultants on political campaign.&nbsp; While rookie copy writers could further develop the linguistic tool to craft and enhance persuasive power in political campaign texts, political actors could use the strategy to give credibility and legitimacy to the claims in their campaign discourse. This consequently bridges the hitherto credibility gap associated with political discourse.</em></p> Ayoola G. Oyekola Dr. Rohizah Bt Halim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 9 1 231 257 MASS COCONUT PRODUCTION AND ITS ASSOCIATED REFINEMENT INTO PRODUCTS THAT CAN BE OBTAINED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF GHANA AT NSUTEM – EASTERN REGION. https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/326 <p>Coconut (Cocos nucifera) a member of the palm tree families has many purposes which includes for food, fuel, folk medicine,<br>building materials, charcoal, cosmetics, oil for frying and anointing, drinks, making soaps, furniture making and used as materials to<br>make a variety of products for furnishing and decoration. Coconut is produced in Ghana in an infinitesimal quantity of about 0.012%<br>which is an insignificant percentage when it comes to world coconut production. Coconut has an economic value and plays major<br>roles in countries like Indonesia, India, Philippines and Sri Lanka when it comes to country growth and development. Ghana, a West<br>African Country is no exception when it comes to the use of Coconut for local consumption and export but in small quantities. This<br>calls for the need for mass production of coconut by Ghanaians to boost the economy in the direction of export to the international<br>market and local refinement into consumable products both locally and internationally. This is the reason for this research work in<br>Nsutem in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It is established from this research that, mass production will boost the economy after the<br>establishment of a Coconut Research Institute of Ghana (CCRIG) comparable to Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), Oil Palm<br>Research Institute, Soil Research Institute, Water Research Institutes, Plant Genetic Resources Research, Animal Research Institute<br>etc. all in Ghana. The Coconuts will be used and processed into the products indicated above for national use and export which will<br>generate Billions of Pounds Sterling and Cedis for the country Ghana and the world market. Establishing such a research Institute<br>will result in the engagement of experts from medical research/clinical trials on the health benefits of coconut oil and heart disease,<br>diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, HIV/Aids and others.</p> ISAAC ODOI DANQUAH JOSEPH TWUMASI DANKWA JOSHUA ANGELEY DANQUAH RICHARD PEASAH ANSAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 9 1 258 272 Training mode of Electrical engineering and automation based on Professional certification of Engineering education https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/327 <p><em>This paper introduces the construction and practice of training mode of electrical engineering and automation of </em><em>Yangtze University</em> <em>based on &nbsp;professional certification of Engineering Education</em><em>,</em><em>and explains the training objectives, graduation requirements, curriculum structure and practical teaching. The professional certification of engineering education</em> <em>improves students' comprehensive quality and ability, and ensures that the</em> <em>engineering and technical talents meets international standards.</em></p> Hanping Nie Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 9 1 273 279 Human Displacement and Cultural Clash in Kamala Markandaya’s Novel The Coffer Dams (1969) https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/328 <p><em>Kamala Markandaya’s novel The Coffer Dams (1969) focuses on human displacement as a major concern during the construction of dams. The proposals of the states </em><em>for building huge multi-purpose projects often offer confrontation to nature and the inhabitants of the forests that are going to be submerged. Most of the time the negotiations between the states and the inhabitants, especially Adivasis, are met with violence if the Adivasis are reluctant to be rehabilitated to the new places. Due to their emotional attachment to forests and reluctance to relocate in the hustle-bustle towns, they usually question or confront the states. Since the states are powerful institutions, they can quickly suppress the voices or retaliations of the tribal groups. The Coffer Dams is one such novel based on an intense socio-cultural background that describes the confrontation between the authority of state and tribal groups, and the clash of western values with the traditional values of the indigenous groups in a south Indian region.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Ajmeera Saida Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 9 1 280 285 Struggle for Civil Rights, Economic and Political Equality in Mark Twain’s The Huckleberry Finn https://www.ijrjournal.com/index.php/ijr/article/view/329 <p>There are few books in modern literature that have generated as much controversy as <em>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn</em>. It chronicles the journey of a white lad with a "sound heart but a distorted conscience" (Mark Twain) as he overcomes his southern upbringing and assists a runaway Negro slave in escaping to freedom. The author describes the novel as a "satire on the wretched human race." Twain had already addressed racism in Tom Sawyer, but it becomes a significant issue in Huck Finn.</p> <p>Hemingway famously stated in 1935 that "all American literature stems from a single Mark Twain novel named Huckleberry Finn..." The book's extreme comments, whether supportive or critical, virtually often address the novel's primary subject, Huck's acceptance of his obligation to Jim, a "nigger." As a result, controversy over the book's racism has persisted since it was first published in 1883. It has always been a target of manners, morality, and misguided racial consciousness censors. The work, however, depicts America's inability to reconcile with itself and its own history. It makes a strong case for America and the American spirit. Restricting it is akin to assassinating the messenger who delivers terrible news. To demonstrate that <em>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn </em>is not a racist novel, but rather the polar opposite, is the purpose of this research study. The present paper focuses on the significant themes in the novels <em>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn</em> and <em>Tom Sawyer</em> of Mark Twain.</p> Ch Rajaniprashanth Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 9 1 286 298