International Journal of Research <div>International Journal of Research (IJR) with ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) and 2348-795X (Print) is an international peer reviewed, internationally refereed, online, open-access journal published monthly. International Journal of Research (IJR) represents a revolution in scholarly journal publishing platform. A pioneering effort in liberal, open access publishing with fast and high quality peer review that brings journal publishing to the doorstep of every researcher and student. We believe that quality information should be free and accessible universally in this day and age. The ideology of an open-access journal is in being free for all and IJR will be free for all to read and share.</div> <div>Send papers to <strong></strong></div> <div><strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="homepageImage"><img src="" alt="Journal Homepage Image" width="158" height="106" /></div> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>IJR takes special care to publish your research paper/article without any delay. Our journal aims to bring out the latent research talent and the professional work done by Scientists, Engineers, Architects, Planners, Practitioners, Administrators, Scholars, Graduate and Post Graduate students across all fields. This journal welcomes the submission of your research papers that meet our submission guidelines and the general criteria of significance and excellence in the field of Engineering, Science and Humanities. Submitted articles are peer reviewed by our panel of experts from various fields. All submitted papers are double-checked for plagiarized content. Please note that all submissions need to be previously unpublished.</p> </div> </div> en-US (D Bong) (De Bong) Sat, 04 Nov 2023 14:09:35 +0000 OJS 60 Financial Management Challenges in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach <p>The significance of SMEs in the global economy is multifaceted. They contribute not only to economic growth and employment but also to innovation, entrepreneurship, and the overall resilience of economies around the world. Recognizing and supporting the role of SMEs is vital for fostering a healthy and sustainable global economic landscape. SMEs embody the entrepreneurial spirit. They are often founded and led by individuals with a vision, drive, and willingness to take risks. This spirit is a driving force behind economic dynamism and growth. SMEs often specialize in niche markets and provide a diverse range of products and services. This diversity contributes to a well-rounded and competitive marketplace, offering consumers a broad array of choices.</p> Raghvendra Kumar, Lakshmi. P. Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pesticide Formulation by Benzimidazoles Precursors, Phenyl Pyrazole and Strobilurins and its Validation <p>Pesticide is a chemical or biological compound or agent (such as a virus, bacterium, or fungus) that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests includes insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, or spread disease, or are disease vectors. Apart from that some pesticides have benefits; some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species and living things.</p> Dinesh Dutt, Monika Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Elements of Postcolonialism and its Supporter - A Brief Study <p><em>Postcolonialism is the critical academic study of the cultural, political, and economic legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the impact of human control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands. </em><em>The "post-colonial" (with a hyphen) signifies a period that comes chronologically "after" colonialism. "Postcolonial," on the other hand, signals the persisting impact of colonization across time periods and geographical regions.</em></p> <p><em>A possible working definition for postcolonialism is that&nbsp;</em><em>it involves a studied engagement with the experience of colonialism and its past and present effects, both at the local level of ex-colonial societies and at the level of more general global developments thought to be the after-effects of empire.</em></p> <p><em>Postcolonialism is an academic discipline that analyses, explains, and responds to the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism. The purpose of the present study is to examine the postcolonialism and elements of postcolonialism such as marginalization, identity, multiculturalism, racial discrimination, hybridity, mimicry etc. The article discusses the thoughts of Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, Homi K. Bhabha, and Gayatri Spivak on postcolonialism as well.</em></p> Kumari Bharti Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 06 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Fintech Startups in Economic Growth with Special Reference to Phoebe <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>Fintech startups are known for their innovative approach to financial products and services. PhonePe, for example, offers a range of services beyond basic digital payments, including mutual fund investments, insurance, and more. This innovation encourages consumers to explore and use a variety of financial instruments, contributing to the growth of the financial sector. Financial services have been hit hard by cyber commotion, but it also opened up a host of new opportunities for people from all walks of life. This digital disruption has pushed us people further on the track of monetary enclosure, which now stood as a key In the previous span, this was a popular topic of discussion in India all thanks and credit goes to the leader’s growing willingness for fiscal insertion within marginalized groups.</em></p> Avany Dubey, Dev Maghani, Ankith Kumar, Lakshmi. P Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 07 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Unwrapping Symbols: Exploring O. Henry's Message in 'The Gift of the Magi <p><em>This research paper delves into the symbolism used by the renowned American short story writer, O. Henry, in his classic tale, "The Gift of the Magi." By examining the historical context of the Modern Age and O. Henry's life, we set the stage for a comprehensive analysis of the story's central symbols: a gold watch and the wife's cherished hair. These symbols play a pivotal role in the narrative as a young married couple sacrifices their most prized possessions to exchange heartfelt Christmas gifts. Through a meticulous exploration of these symbols and their interconnections, this study aims to unravel the deeper messages intended by the author, shedding light on the profound themes embedded in the story.</em></p> Manda Sarada Devi, S. Devaki Devi Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 07 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mediating Role of Work Engagement on the Relationship Between Psychological Contract and Turnover Intention of Insurance Agents in Batticaloa District <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Sri Lankan insurance companies are competing to gain an edge over other financial sectors as well as to achieve their business goals. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of psychological contracts on the turnover Intention of Insurance agents in Batticaloa District with the mediating role of work engagement in an attempt to fill the knowledge gap observed in this study area to some extent.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The primary data were gathered from 184 employees from selected ten insurance companies based on a stratified random sampling method through self-reported questionnaires and a five-point Likert scale was assigned to measure the variables. The collected data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate techniques in SPSS 22.0 version software.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that psychological contract, work engagement, and turnover intention are at a moderate level, high level, and low level respectively. The results indicate that there is a significant and moderate negative relationship between turnover intention, psychological contract, a significant and moderate positive relationship between psychological contract and work engagement and a is a significant and strong negative relationship between work engagement and turnover intention. Also, work engagement does not mediate the relationship between the psychological contract and turnover intention.</p> <p><strong>Implications:</strong> The study can positively contribute as a strategy-level document in formulating human resource policies in insurance companies. Therefore, the findings of this study are important in relation to promoting work engagement when designing an organization.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Psychological Contract, Turnover Intention, Work Engagement</em></p> <p><u>&nbsp;</u></p> Harishanthan S. Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 11 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling the Enigma of Narratives: A Review of "Why Stories Work" by Somdev Chatterjee <p>In "Why Stories Work," Somdev Chatterjee takes a deep dive into the profound mysteries surrounding the allure of narratives, offering readers a captivating exploration of the evolutionary and cognitive roots that underpin the power of storytelling. Published by Notion Press in April 2023, this paperback, with its non-technical language and interdisciplinary approach, provides an accessible journey into the scientific study of fiction, making it a valuable read for both the layman and the budding student of literary and narrative theory.</p> Shubhana Sree Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Waste Management & Air Pollution Control Using Activated Charcoal <p>Air pollution poses a grave threat to global public health, endangering millions of lives with toxic gases and particulate matter. This pioneering research introduces an innovative solution: air sterilizers utilizing activated charcoal sourced from waste materials, with a forward-looking integration of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as part of future research directions. By delving into the intricate science of adsorption, the study reveals the profound potential of activated charcoal in mitigating air pollution.</p> <p>Thorough exploration of diverse waste sources underpins this study, outlining practical and sustainable methods for charcoal production. The research emphasizes the economic viability and scalability of charcoal-based air sterilizers, while also considering policy implications. The integration of AI in future applications promises to optimize the adsorption process, ensuring enhanced efficiency in capturing pollutants and advancing the efficacy of air sterilization techniques.</p> <p>This comprehensive analysis not only underscores the environmental consciousness of the approach but also signals a pivotal step toward future sustainable practices in air quality management. By bridging the gap between traditional methods and cutting-edge technology, this research serves as a cornerstone, laying the groundwork for a greener, cleaner future. Through the integration of activated charcoal and AI technology, this paper contributes significantly to the ongoing global efforts to combat air pollution and create a healthier environment for all.</p> Richa Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 17 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Stereotypes in Chhota Bheem: Impact on Children’s Perceptions and Socialization <p><em>This study explores how gender stereotypes in Chhota Bheem affect children’s perceptions, socialization, and attitudes by analyzing visual and auditory depictions of gender roles. It aims to contribute to understanding the broader impact of gender representations in children's media, emphasizing gender disparities and the potential restriction of women characters in selected episodes.</em></p> Sangeeta Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 18 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Labyrinth in Anita Desai's Novel Bye - Bye Blackbird <p>Anita Desai, an author from the Indian Diaspora, has charted the problem that afflicts the immigrant community's sensitive soul. Through an objective analysis of Bye-Bye Blackbird, this essay also aims to draw attention to these aspects of the book. Desai elucidated the plight of those in Exile and the Diaspora&nbsp;caught amid&nbsp;society's transformational dilemma. The essay attempts, in her masterful style, to represent the Exile's chaos and strife, and it demonstrates how her novel depicts the perspective of Exile literary and Indian Diasporic writing. The main Cultural Labrinth in the Novel “Bye Bye Black Bird” we find Sarah's Conundrum of Self-Esteem, Taking an English Girl as My Wife, The Ultimate Call</p> Ahmed Flayih Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 18 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth of Goods and Services Tax in India- A Study of Revenue Generated 2019-2023 <p><em>The concept of goods and services tax is one of the biggest revolutions in decades around the world. The GST is a biggest and substantial indirect tax reform since 1947. The main idea of GST is to replace the existing the taxes like value added tax, excise duty, service tax and sales tax. it will levied on the manufacture and sale and consumption of goods and services. The structure of the GST results in uniting the country economically. The main objective of this research is to investigate the revenue collection of goods and service tax month wise and its growth. The study used only secondary data. The study used to descriptive statistical tools and inferential statistical tools used. these results of study indicated that growth of the GST collection yearly.&nbsp; &nbsp;</em></p> Guguloth Chanti, B. Sudhakar Reddy Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sentiment Analysis Using NLP <p><strong>Sentiment analysis, often referred to as opinion mining, is a vital subfield of Natural Language Processing (NLP) that focuses on understanding and classifying sentiments expressed in text data. This paper offers a comprehensive exploration of sentiment analysis, encompassing its methodologies, applications across various domains, and practical implications. We delve into the specifics of data collection, preprocessing, feature extraction, sentiment analysis techniques, and present empirical findings that highlight the effectiveness of our approach.</strong></p> Abhinav Mishra, Amit Ranjan, Arin Kumar, Vikash Sharma, Projjwal Biswas Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 25 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 White Topping Overlay for Rehabilitation of Bituminous Roads <p>Concrete overlays have been used to rehabilitate both the existing bituminous (flexible) pavement since 1918 and existing concrete pavement since 1913. Whitetopping in its various forms have been used in the USA and Europe on Airports, Inter-state roads, Primary &amp; Secondary Highways, Local Roads, Streets and Parking lots to improve the performance, durability and riding quality of deteriorated bituminous pavement surfaces. There has been a renewed interest in whitetopping, particularly, in Thin &amp; Ultra Thin Whitetopping during the last decade. This has been possible due to several successful high profile projects executed in USA and Europe. Their effectiveness has further renewed interest in them because they satisfy the demand caused by rapidly deteriorating highways confronted with limited fund availability. Whitetopping of all types, viz; Conventional Whitetopping, Thin Whitetopping (TWT) and Ultra Thin Whitetopping (UTWT) offer immense potential as a rehabilitation strategy for Indian roads. Several successful projects have been executed at Pune, Mumbai, Delhi, Nagpur, Jaipur and Bangalore in the last few years. The performance of these sections has been found to be satisfactory. The paper discusses the design and construction aspects of TWT.</p> Rajbir Singh, Sachin Dull Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 25 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000